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Korean Terminology

Below, I have associated Korean words with the English equivalent. The Korean word is given in both the Romanized version (using English characters) and in Korean characters (Hangeul); this site uses the Revised Romanization system. The Hangeul column is important because Korean has more vowels than English, and the only truly accurate way to get the correct pronunciation is to look at the word in Hangeul.

Of course, this requires learning how to read Korean characters, which is much easier than it might appear. Korean uses individual letters just like English (not pictograms as in Chinese). The letters are simply grouped into blocks by syllable, which might give the general impression of a pictogram at first glance.

J. David Eisenberg has put together an excellent website to help you get started with learning Korean at http://langintro.com/kintro/. Learning Korean is not vital to learning Tae Kwon Do, but in the spirit of the Hwa Rang Do, I encourage you to learn at least some basics about the language and culture of Korea in addition to learning Tae Kwon Do techniques.

Note: in order to view the Hangeul characters, you need to have Korean language support installed on your computer.

School-related terms:
Strike with the foot Tae
Strike with the hand Kwon
Way of life Do
Way of the Foot and Hand Tae Kwon Do 태권도
School Do-jang 도장
President Chong-jae 총재
Director / master Kwan-jang-nim 관장님
Instructor Sa-beom-nim 사범님
Senior Seon-bae-nim 선배님
Junior Son-a-rae 손아래
Uniform Do-bok 도복
Useful words and phrases:
Yes Ne
No A-ni-yo 아니요
Hello An-yeong-ha-se-yo 안녕 하세요
Goodbye (to one who is leaving) An-yeong-hi-ka-se-yo 안녕 히 가세요
Goodbye (to one who is remaining) An-yeong-hi-kye-se-yo 안녕 히 계세요
Thank you Gam-sa-ham-ni-da 감사 합니다
You're welcome Cheon-man-ae-yo 천만에요
Sorry Joe-song-ham-ni-da 죄송합니다
Excuse me Shil-lye-ham-ni-da 실례합니다
Good luck Haeng-un-eul pim-ni-da 행운을 빕니다
Ranks and belts:
Junior rank (color belt) Geup
Senior rank (black belt) Dan
Belt Tti
White belt Huin-saek tti 흰색 띠
Yellow belt No-ran-saek tti 노란색 띠
Orange belt Ju-hwang-saek tti 주황색 띠
Green belt Nok-saek tti 녹색 띠
Blue belt Pa-ran-saek tti 파란색 띠
Red belt Ppal-gan-saek tti 빨간색 띠
Black belt Geom-jeong-saek tti 검정색 띠
Tenets of Tae Kwon Do:
Courtesy (literally, politeness) Ye-ui 예의
Integrity Yom-chi / Jeong-jik 염치 / 정직
Perseverance In-nae 인내
Self-control Geuk-gi 극기
Indomitable spirit Baek-jeol-bul-gul 백절불굴
Community service Sa-hui-bong-sa 사회봉사
Love Sa-rang 사랑
The Theory of Power:
Reaction force Ban-dong-ryeok 반동력
Concentration Jip-jung 집중
Equilibrium Kyun-hyeong 균형
Breath control Ho-heup 호흡
Speed Sok-do 속도
Commands:
Attention Cha-ryeot 차렷
Bow Kyeong-nye 경례
Ready Jun-bi 준비
Start Shi-jak 시작
Stop Geu-man 그만
As you were Pa-ro 바로
Relax Swi-eo 쉬어
Turn around Dwi-ro dor-a 뒤로 돌아
Yell Ki-hap 기합
Adjust uniform Do-bok jeong-ri 도복 정리
Attacks:
Punch Ji-reu-gi 지르기
Thrust Tol-ki / Chi-reu-gi 돌기 / 찌르기
Strike Ttae-ri-gi / Chi-gi 때리기 / 치기
Kick Cha-gi 차기
Kicks:
Front kick Ap cha-gi 앞 차기
Side kick Yeop cha-gi 옆 차기
Roundhouse kick Dol-lyeo cha-gi 돌려 차기
Back kick Dwi cha-gi 뒤 차기
Crescent kick Ban-dal cha-gi 반달 차기
Crescent kick (outside to inside) Ban-dal an cha-gi 반달 안 차기
Crescent kick (inside to outside) Ban-dal ba-kkat cha-gi 반달 바깥 차기
Axe kick Do-kki cha-gi 도끼 차기
Jumping front kick Ttwi-myeo ap cha-gi 뛰며 앞 차기
Jumping side kick Ttwi-myeo yeop cha-gi 뛰며 옆 차기
Jumping roundhouse kick Ttwi-myeo dol-lyeo cha-gi 뛰며 돌려 차기
Jumping crescent kick Ttwi-myeo ban-dal cha-gi 뛰며 반달 차기
Blocks:
Block Mak-gi 막기
Rising block (head block) Chu-kyeo mak-gi 추켜 막기
Guarding block Dae-bi mak-gi 대비 막기
Double knife-hand guarding block Son-kal dae-bi mak-gi 손칼 대비 막기
Twin forearm block Ssang pal-mok mak-gi 쌍 팔목막기
Double forearm block (push block) Du pal-mok mak-gi 두 팔목 막기
Wedging (spreading) block Hae-chyeo mak-gi 해쳐 막기
Circular block Dol-lyeo mak-gi 돌려막기
Upward block Ol-lyeo mak-gi 올려 막기
Downward block Nae-ryeo mak-gi 내려 막기
Mountain block San mak-gi 산 막기
Stances:
Stance Seo-gi 서기
Walking stance Geo-nun seo-gi 걷는 서기
L stance Ni-un seo-gi ㄴ 서기
Sitting stance An-nun seo-gi 앉는서기
Fixed stance Go-jeong seo-gi 고정 서기
Low stance Naj-chweo seo-gi 낮춰 서기
X (cross) stance Kyo-cha seo-gi 교차 서기
Closed stance Mo-a seo-gi 모아 서기
Rear foot stance Dwit-bal seo-gi 뒷발 서기
Ready stance Jun-bi seo-gi 준비 서기
Bending ready stance Gu-bu-ryeo jun-bi seo-gi 구부려 준비 서기
Parallel ready stance Na-ran-hi jun-bi seo-gi 나란히 준비 서기
Vertical stance Su-jik seo-gi 수직 서기
Directions:
High section Nop-eun-dae 높은데
Middle section Ka-un-dae 가운데
Low section Naj-eun-dae 낮은데
Side Yeop
Front Ap
Back Dwi
Inward An-eu-ro 안으로
Outward Bakk-eu-ro 밖으로
Upward Ol-lyeo 올려
Downward Nae-ryeo 내려
Right O-reun 오른
Left Wen
Inner An
Outer Ba-kkat 바깥
Forward Ap-eu-ro 앞으로
Backward Mul-leo-seo-myeo 물러서며
Activities:
Self-defense Ho-shin-sul 호신술
Sparring Kyeo-ru-gi 겨루기
1-step sparring Il-bo kyeo-ru-gi 일보 겨루기
3-step sparring Sam-bo kyeo-ru-gi 삼보 겨루기
Breaking Kyeok-pa 격파
Patterns Hyeong / Teul 형 / 틀
Hand / arm parts:
Hand Son
Palm Son-ba-dak 손바닥
Knife-hand Son-kal 손칼
Reverse knife-hand Son-kal deung 손칼등
Fingers Son-ga-rak 손가락
Fingertips Son-kkeutt 손끝
Fist Ju-meok 주먹
Forefist Ap ju-meok 앞주먹
Backfist Deung ju-meok 등주먹
Sidefist Yeop ju-meok 옆주먹
Arm Pal
Elbow Pal-kkup 팔꿈
Forearm Pal-mok 팔목
Foot / leg parts:
Leg Da-ri 다리
Foot Bal
Ball of foot Ap-kkum-chi 앞꿈치
Heel Dwi-kkum-chi 뒤꿈치
Footsword Bal-kal 발칼
Ankle Bal-mok 발목
Knee Mu-reup 무릎
Instep Bal-deung 발등
Toes Bal-ka-rak 발가락
Korean numbers (for counting, as in patterns):
1 Ha-na 하나
2 Dul
3 Set
4 Net
5 Ta-seot 다섯
6 Yeo-seot 여섯
7 Il-gop 일곱
8 Yeo-deol 여덟
9 A-hop 아홉
10 Yeol
11 Yeol ha-na 열하나
20 Seu-mul 스물
21 Seu-mul ha-na 스물하나
30 Seo-reun 서른
40 Ma-heun 마흔
50 Swin
60 Yae-sun 예순
70 Il-heun 일흔
80 Yeo-deun 여든
90 A-heun 아흔
Sino-Korean (Chinese) numbers:
1st Il
2nd I
3rd Sam
4th Sa
5th O
6th Yuk
7th Chil
8th Pal
9th Gu
10 Ship
11 Ship-il 십일
20 I-ship 이십
21 I-ship-il 이십일
38 Sam-ship-pal 삼십팔
100 Baek
1000 Cheon
10,000 Man


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